Romania Case farm 1

See the sustainability assessment Romanian case farm 1(pdf)

Two types of production supporting each other
This low-input dairy farm is located in the South region of the Romanian Plain (Southern Romania). As many dairy farms in Romania, it has two main types of production: animal production (dairy) and cereal crops (part of which is sold). It uses housing facilities of the old communist cooperative system: basic infrastructure, tethered cows (head to head, central feeding alley, etc.). The farm is run by the family (2-3 members), assisted by few casual workers, makes minimal use of bank loans and has a low-input approach. Milk is sold through a single outlet (national milk collectors) which has potentially adverse effects on farm resilience. However, the two types of production support each other. For example, the dairy farm benefits of crop residues/wastes while farm manure is the main fertilizer. Feeding is based on pasture (in the summer time) and hay plus bulk forages in the winter time (no use of silages) while the concentrate feeds are minimal (brans, some coarsely ground grains).

Farm type:
Low-input dairy cows, multipurpose farm (cereal crops + dairy)

Staff: 2-3 family members and 1-2 casual workers

Dairy cows: 70
Ewes: 40 (mostly for family and kin needs)
Milk production:
(litres per cow per year):  4885

Land data:
Size: 103 ha
Soil type: Medium
GLU -Grazing livestock units pr ha:  3,25

Forage and land use:
Pasture (permanent, not improved): 23 ha.
Other forage crops: 10 ha.
Cereals: 70 ha

About  80% of the feeding is roughage (pasture / hay + bulk forages)


Local engagement:
Public access is not encouraged, but the farmer is open to appointed visits. The production is sold at national level.

Energy usage per year:
Tractor diesel: 10000 litres
Electricity (farm usage only): 23,000 Kw hours

Total NPK balance in kg:




Inputs kg/ha




Outputs kg/ha




Balance (kg/ha)




Efficiency of use
(ratio of outputs in products:inputs)




Biodiversity and nature conservation:
All grassland under low input management
Some small natural area (brook + associated vegetation)

Sustainability assessment Romanian case farm 1

See details on Romanian case farm 2
See background info on all Romanian case farms examined

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